## CHAPTER ONE

# THE GENERAL THEORY OF INFERENCE AND TERMS

## 3. Two TYPES OF TERMS

Consider a statement 'The electron is negatively charged'. It consists of the terms 'electron' and 'negatively charged'. But the roles of those terms in the statement are different: the first denotes the object under consideration, whereas the second denotes what we would like to say about this object. The terms of the second type are called predicates, and what is denoted by them is called the attributes of objects. The terms of the first type are called subjects. Predicates are divided into one-, two-, three-, etc. place ones, depending on how many term-subjects are required to form a statement. Thus, a predicate 'is negatively charged' is one-place, and the predicates in statements 'a is greater than V and 'a is between b and c' are, respectively, two-place and three-place. We assume that it is possible to distinguish between predicates in such a way. In exactly the same manner we suppose that it is possible to distinguish between predicates and subjects. Sometimes, as in the example given at the beginning of this paragraph, the difference is obvious, in other cases a certain effort is required to discover and single out the predicate. Thus, the predicate in the statement 'a is greater than V is the expression 'the first object is greater than the second object', which cannot be visualized in it directly. No predicate represents a subject and no subject represents a predicate. For any a and fo, if one of them is a subject and the other is a predicate, the following is valid: ~ (a-^b) and ~ (b-^a). In order to 'transform' the subject a into the predicate b, or vice versa, one should construct of a (or of b) and other additional linguistic elements the term b (or, respectively, a) according to special rules.